Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia

 

industrial revolution article

The Fourth Industrial Revolution heralds a series of social, political, cultural, and economic upheavals that will unfold over the 21st century. Building on the widespread availability of digital technologies that were the result of the Third Industrial, or Digital, Revolution, the Fourth Industrial. Industrial Revolution, term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. Oct 14,  · The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 18th to 19th centuries, was a period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and mzclplo.tk: mzclplo.tk Editors.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution: what it means and how to respond | World Economic Forum


Early 18th century British industries were generally small scale and relatively unsophisticated. Such small-scale production was also a feature of most other industries, with different regions specialising in different products: metal production in the Midlands, for example, and coal mining in the North-East.

Usage terms Public Domain New techniques and technologies in agriculture paved the wave for change. Increasing amounts of food were produced over the century, ensuring that enough was available to meet the needs of the ever-growing population. A surplus of cheap agricultural labour led to severe unemployment and rising poverty in many rural areas. As a result, many people left the countryside to find work in towns and cities.

So the scene was set for a large-scale, labour intensive factory system, industrial revolution article. Because there were limited sources of power, industrial development during the early s was initially slow. Textile mills, heavy machinery and the pumping of coal mines all depended heavily on old technologies of power: waterwheels, windmills and horsepower were usually the only sources available.

Changes in steam technology, however, began to change the situation dramatically. As early as Thomas Newcomen industrial revolution article unveiled his steam-driven piston engine, which allowed industrial revolution article more efficient pumping of deep mines. Steam engines improved rapidly as the century advanced, and were put to greater and greater use. More efficient and powerful engines were employed in coalmines, textile mills and dozens of other heavy industries. By perhaps 2, industrial revolution article, steam engines were eventually at work in Britain.

Usage terms Public Domain New inventions in iron manufacturing, particularly those perfected by the Darby family of Shropshire, allowed for stronger and more durable metals to be produced, industrial revolution article. The spinning of cotton into threads industrial revolution article weaving into cloth had traditionally taken place in the homes of textile workers.

The weaving process was similarly improved by advances in technology. Steam technology would produce yet more change, industrial revolution article. Constant power was now available to drive the dazzling array of industrial machinery in textiles and other industries, which were installed up and down the country.

Large industrial buildings usually employed one central source of power to drive a whole network of machines. Other industries flourished under the factory system. In Industrial revolution article, James Watt and Matthew Boulton established their huge foundry and metal works in Soho, where nearly 1, industrial revolution article, people were employed in industrial revolution article s making buckles, boxes and buttons, as well as the parts for new steam engines.

Usage terms Public Domain Though not all factories were bad places to work, many were dismal and highly dangerous. Some factories were likened to prisons or barracks, where workers encountered harsh discipline enforced by factory owners.

Many children were sent there from workhouses or orphanages to work long hours in hot, dusty conditions, and were forced to crawl through narrow spaces between fast-moving machinery. A working day of 12 hours was not uncommon, and accidents happened frequently.

Though many mines stood close to rivers or the sea, the shipping of coal was slowed down by unpredictable tides and weather. Because of the growing demand for this essential raw material, many mine owners and industrial speculators began financing new networks of canals, in order to link their mines more effectively with the growing centres of population and industry. The early canals were small but highly beneficial. Infor example, the Duke of Bridgewater opened a canal between his colliery at Worsley and the rapidly growing town of Manchester.

Other canal building schemes were quickly authorised by Acts of Parliament, in order to link up an expanding network of rivers and waterways. Byover 2, miles of canals were in use in Britain, carrying thousands of tonnes of raw materials and manufactured goods by horse-drawn barge. Usage terms Public Domain Most roads were in a terrible industrial revolution article early in this period.

Many were poorly maintained and even major routes flooded during the winter. Journeys by stagecoach were long and uncomfortable. London in particular suffered badly when wagons and carts were bogged down in poor conditions and were left unable to deliver food to markets.

The improvements achieved by 18th century road builders were breathtaking. By the s the stagecoach journey from London to Edinburgh took just two days, compared to nearly two weeks only half a century before, industrial revolution article. Dr Matthew White is Research Fellow in History at the University of Hertfordshire where he specialises in the industrial revolution article history of London during the 18th and 19th centuries.

His most recently published work has looked at changing modes of public justice in the 18th and 19th centuries with particular reference to the part played by crowds at executions and other judicial punishments. The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. The Industrial Revolution. Article written by: Matthew White Published: 14 Oct In this article Matthew White explores the industrial revolution which changed the landscape and infrastructure of Britain forever.

Early industry Early 18th century British industries were generally small scale and relatively unsophisticated. Usage terms Public Domain. New techniques and technologies in agriculture industrial revolution article the wave for change. Steam and industrial revolution article Because there were limited sources of power, industrial development during the early s was initially slow. New inventions in iron manufacturing, particularly those perfected by the Darby family of Shropshire, allowed for stronger and more durable metals to be produced.

Factories The spinning of cotton into threads for weaving into cloth had traditionally taken place in the homes of textile workers. Though not all factories were bad places to work, many were dismal and highly dangerous. Most roads were in a terrible state early in this period. Share this page. British Library newsletter Sign up to our newsletter Email.

Georgian Britain Articles Collection items Teaching resources.

 

The Industrial Revolution (article) | Khan Academy

 

industrial revolution article

 

Industrial Revolution, term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. Oct 14,  · The 18th century saw the emergence of the ‘Industrial Revolution’, the great age of steam, canals and factories that changed the face of the British economy forever. Early 18th century British industries were generally small scale and relatively unsophisticated. Most textile production, for. Sep 04,  · Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. The process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world, driving changes in energy use, socioeconomics, and culture.